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Ultrasonication

Introduction

The discovery of ultrasound is rooted in the science of sound, with Sir Isaac Newton first proposing his theory of sound waves in Principia (1686). Ultrasound is simply a sound wave that operates above the range of human hearing. From a cannabis perspective, it is a mechanical process that generates liquid mixing and shear forces on a micro or nanoscale. Current research and development efforts by Le Herbe have demonstrated that ultrasound is the future of cannabis processing, preservation and extraction operations. The information shared here is meant to spur innovation in our industry. We feel that private funding is the best option for producing high-quality cannabis research that leads to better products for everyone.

Ultrasonication Offers Cannabis Companies Several Advantages

Growing consumer demands for eco-friendly alternatives and all-natural ingredients has attracted Le Herbe to develop this clean green technology for the cannabis industry. Ultrasonication or simply sonication offers several advantages including, but not limited to:

  • Green Technology
  • Higher Yields
  • Speed and Versatility
  • Low Investment
  • Easy to Operate, Clean and Maintain
  • Green Chemistry
  • Preservation of Bioactivity
  • Solventless Techniques
  • Enhancement of Bioavailability
  • Significant Energy Savings

Applications of Ultrasound

Emulsification
Extraction
Decarboxylation
Sample Preparation
Sterilization
Deagglomeration

Types of Ultrasound

Low Intensity

Low-intensity approaches use small amplitude (intensities of less than 1 W cm⁻²) ultrasonic waves at high frequency (>1 MHz) that do not damage the material through which they propagate. It can be used in non-destructive analytical measurements and monitoring of composition and physicochemical properties of cannabis edibles and beverages during processing and storage for quality control purposes.

High Intensity

High-intensity applications (also known as power ultrasound) use larger amplitude (intensities higher than 1 W cm⁻²) ultrasonic waves and can alter the physicochemical properties or structure of cannabis material. Power ultrasound typically uses acoustic frequencies between 20 and 100 kHz and is useful in invasive applications, which gives impact to physical, chemical and biological properties of cannabis beverages and edible processing, preservation and safety. Although we are not going to review the extended power range (300 to 500 kHz), it is used to generate chemical reactions in a field referred to as sonochemistry.

How it Works?

When ultrasound propagates through any medium, it induces a series of compression and rarefaction in the molecules of the medium. Such alternating pressure changes cause the formation and the collapse of bubbles in a liquid medium. This phenomenon of creation, expansion, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in ultrasound-irradiated liquids is known as “acoustic cavitation”. The ability of ultrasound to cause cavitation depends upon its characteristics (e.g., frequency and intensity), medium properties (e.g., viscosity and surface tension) and ambient conditions (e.g., temperature and pressure). Various physical and chemical phenomena including agitation, vibration, pressure, shock waves, shear forces, microjets, compression and rarefaction, acoustic streaming, cavitation, and radical formation are responsible for ultrasonic effect.

Conclusions

During the last decade we have witnessed an amazing increase in the application of ultrasonic energy in analytical chemistry and food science. As the uses of ultrasonication become increasingly important in development of functional food ingredients so to has the importance of the type of ultrasonic devices. Not all devices perform equally and are not all intended for the same applications. Although recent studies prove their superiority over conventional products, further data is needed in terms of cannabis efficacy, microorganisms, food enzymes, and food components (proteins, carbohydrates, cannabinoids, nutrients, etc.). Because of current regulations and red tape, imagine if private cannabis companies shared R&D, we invite you to join in on endless possibilities.

QSonica
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry

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